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NSlookup commands – How to use them?

There are many commands that you can use on Linux, but just a few are that simple and yet useful as the Nslookup command. Small, fast, and handy, it is just a few lines from answering your questions about a domain. 

Nslookup, what is it?

The name of Nslookup breaks down to ns for nameserver and lookup for querying it. Nslookup is a software with a command-line interface that you can use from the Terminal and check domains, devices/IP addresses, or DNS records. You can use it on Linux, of course, but it is also available on macOS and even Windows. 

It comes pre-installed on most of the Linux distros, so you don’t need to download it yourself. Network admins like it because it is small, easy to use, and additional options can modify the query by choosing a port, timeout period, and more. The answers that the Nslookup command provides are simple and clean. 

By default, you will get IP address (if you checked domain) or domain (for reverse lookup), and it will show you if the answer came from authoritative or non-authoritative server. If you need more detailed answers and statistics, you can later use another software as an addition.  

If you need more detailed information, we suggest you to take a look at this article about Nslookup commands.

What is Linux Kernel – Everything you need to know.

The Kernel is the core of an operating system (OS). Linux Kernel is already three decades old and closes to 30 million code lines. Right now, it’s running on desktops, laptops, tablets, routers, servers, smartphones, lots of Internet of Things, and the most powerful computers in the world. 

To talk about the Linux Kernel can go very long. Let’s check exactly what you need to know about it. 

What is the Linux Kernel?

It is the most important component of the Linux OS. It is in charge of memory, peripheral devices, and central processing unit (CPU). Through the Linux Kernel (interface), communication between hardware and its processes is possible and efficient in terms of resources use. Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, a very popular programming language.

Kernel is a modern English word for “cyrnel”, which means seed. It seems it took this name to make a botanical reference meaning the seed from which everything else grows. In any case, this gives a clear image to understand that the Kernel inside Linux OS is the one controlling many functions in plenty of devices (hardware).

Linux Kernel is a monolithic one. In other words, it is a Kernel that includes memory, interprocess communication (IPC), CPU, file system management, system server calls, and device drivers. The best possible tools for communicating with hardware and execute simultaneous tasks. Due to this, processes work with fast speed.

A disadvantage of monolithic Kernel is that if one of its functions fails, all the system does it.

What are the Kernel mode and user mode?

The code the system executes has two modes for being run on CPUs: Kernel mode and user mode. With the first, all the code running has hardware’s unlimited access. But with the second, access is limited to the CPU and memory to the System Call Interface (SCI). 

There is a division between Kernel and userspace also in the case of memory, building containers, security, etc. It helps to protect the system. If there is a failure on a user mode’s process, it won’t be so harmful since the Kernel can recover it. But if there’s a failure on a Kernel mode’s process, a situation can drive the complete system to crash.

Users can get privileges for accessing the Kernel space but just through some strict permissions in order to keep the security of this sensitive space.

Where is the Linux Kernel located?

Think about the Linux OS as a three-layer system: hardware, Linux Kernel, user processes.

  1. Hardware refers to a physical machine with RAM memory, input/output devices (graphics, networking, storage), and CPU, that basically reads and writes on the memory. 
  2. Linux Kernel comes in between hardware and user processes. And it’s the software that lives in the memory and gives orders to the CPU to accomplish tasks.
  3. User processes. Programs run by users and managed by the Kernel.

What are the Linux Kernel’s main functions?

Being the core of the Linux OS, it has a lot of jobs, but we can review it in four main responsibilities.

  1. It provides device drivers for working as a breach or an interpreter between hardware and processes.
  2. It manages processes. Linux Kernel defines the processes that can use the CPU, the exact moment, and the amount of time for doing it.
  3. It administrates memory. Linux Kernel permanently follows up what is stored, where, and the amount of memory used for those tasks.
  4. It receives and services requests from the system and security processes.

Conclusion.

Knowing a bit the power and capabilities of the Linux Kernel, it’s easier to understand its global popularity. Besides, being open-source, possibilities get multiply for users to modify it as they please. Try yourself and let your creativity be thrilled to bits!

Linux Manjaro vs Linux Mint (comparison)

What is Linux Manjaro?

Linux Manjaro is a free and open-source (GNU license) Linux distro based on Arch Linux. It is well-suited for developers, for home use or office. What distinguishes it from other Linux distros is that it offers full control over the hardware and software and very good performance. The desktop environments available are KDE Plasma, XFCE, and GNOME. You can customize the desktop environment with widgets and themes.

What is Linux Mint?

Linux Mint is one of the most popular Linux distribution. Its main version (currently 20.1 Ulyssa) is based on Ubuntu Focal long term support (LTS), that offers support until April 2025, but there is also version 19.3 based on Ubuntu Bionic with support until April 2023, and Debbie based on Debian Buster LTS.

Apart from the long-term support, Linux Mint offers a great user experience with very eye-pleasant desktop environments (Cinnamon, MATE, Xfce) for desktop and laptop computers and GNU license ideal for companies, governmental institutions, and personal use.

Its built-in applications for media playback, office work, and photo editing, plus out-of-the-box media codex, make it really easy for beginner Linux users.

Linux Manjaro vs Linux Mint comparison table

Parameter for comparisonLinux ManjaroLinux Mint
Based onArch Linux.The main version based on the latest Ubuntu version (Ubuntu Focal) and a Debian version called Linux Mint Debie based on Debian Buster LTS.
For who it is?Although regular users can use it, there is a bigger risk a regular user can change something on the system level. It is more targeted to Linux users with experience.For begiнner users who need a reliable OS that is free and easy to use. It works well for advanced users who are benefited from the fact Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu.
Platformx86-64. Unofficial i686 and ARM versions.x86-64, arm64
Release cycleRolling release.A completely new version is released every 2 years and follows the pattern of Ubuntu.
Desktop EnvironmentsKDE Plasma, GNOME, and XFCECinnamon, MATE, XFCE
Init-SystemSystemdSystemd
Package ManagerGUI package manager, Pacman. It can work with all Arch Linux packages, and there is a way to install packages for Ubuntu or Debian.Software Manager, Debian Package Manager, Synaptic package manager
Installation processVery easy installation process. There is a graphic interface for it, similar to any other Ubuntu-based distro.Very easy installation process. There is a graphic interface for it, similar to any other Ubuntu-based distro. Even without any Linux experience, you will be able to install it.
SupportCommunity support.Community Support.
Current Linux Kernel5.11.8 (20.03.21) Linux Manjaro uses the latest kernel, which might be a plus if you prefer the newest.5.4/5.8 (edge edition) Linux Mint goes for stability, and it is usually some versions behind.
RequirementsRecommended: 1 GB RAM. 30 GB storage space. 1 Ghz 64-bit processor. A HD graphics card and monitor. A broadband internet connection.Minimum:
1 GB RAM (2 GB recommended). 15 GB of storage space (20 GB recommended). Screen of 1024×768 resolution. Either a disk (CD/DVD drive) or a USB port for the installation. 64-bit processor, starting from version 20.
Hardware supportVery good hardware support. It can work on older devices too.Good hardware support. Some drivers you must down.
ProsEasy kernel switching. Good amount of packages available. Big community. Latest software is available. Free to use.A good amount of packages available. Big community. Stable distro. LTS versions. Free to use. Good functionality out-of-the-box.
ConsMany and often updates because of its rolling nature. Less stable distro.Slower updates than other distros. Older packages.

Conclusion

Linux Mint and Linux Manjaro are both interesting and suitable for various needs. Which one to choose? They have both great features, nice interfaces, and large forums for help, so they are almost equal.

Why don’t you use the Live Version of both of them, put them on flash drives, and give them a spin. Only by trying both of them can you see how they behave on your device and if they are suitable for your needs.

What is Traceroute command?

Traceroute command explained

Traceroute is a built-in command with a command-line interface that you can use through the Terminal application. It serves as a diagnostic tool most commonly used to trace a route from the computer, sending the traceroute request to a hostname or IP address. It will send the query and get back a result, showing the query’s route and statistics about time and packets lost. 

You can find Traceroute on Linux (almost all distros), macOS, Windows (there it is called tracert), and even Android (though you will need extra installation). 

The software’s benefits are that it is free, easy to use, and serves well its purpose of tracing the route to a target.  

How does traceroute work?

When you are using the traceroute, your device will send packets of data starting from your IP address, going through various hops, and reaching its target – hostname or IP address. The software will use packets with a short TTL (time to live) value and listen for the ICMP replays. The probes continue until a message “port unreachable (ICMP) or rest (TCP), which will indicate host. 

As a result, you will see TTLs, addresses of the hops, and round time per probe, and extra data if you used some of the options.   

If you need more detailed information about the Traceroute command we recommend you this article – Traceroute command and its options

What is the Linux Dig command?

Get ready to learn about a built-in utility tool that you can find on most Linux distros and use for domain probing. The tool is called Dig.

What is the Dig command?

Dig command is a built-in Linux command that you can access through the Terminal application and perform DNS queries. The full name is Domain Information Groper. You can troubleshoot your domain, get all kinds of information about it, including DNS records, name servers, and general network data. What is awesome about it is that it has more functionality than some other built-in tools like nslookup, and it is very easy to use. This is why many network administrators are using it daily, despite its basic command-line interface. 

If you are interested in Dig commands we recommend you to look at this article – 10 most used Dig commands!

Linux host command explained

What is the Linux host command?

The Linux Host command is utility software for DNS probing that you get pre-installed on most Linux distros like – Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Red Hat, CentOS, Arch Linux, and more.

Linux Host command can show you different information for the host, its IP addresses, DNS records, and check name servers.

It does not have a graphical interface, but its CLI is enough to display all the information needed. It is a very light and fast tool that can show you information about DNS records like A, AAAA, MX, NS, SOA, and more. You could have already guessed. It can show you information about the host like its IP addresses and more.

How to use the MTR command?

How to use the MTR command on Linux?

It is very easy to use the MTR command through the Terminal on your Linux computer. Just follow these 3 steps:

  1. First, you need to be an administrator. That means to have a Linux account with sudo privileges.
  2. Second, you will need to install it. The MTR command is not pre-installed like other popular commands. The package name is “mtr”. For that purpose, you will need to execute one of the following commands, depending on your Linux distro:

Ubuntu, Debian, Linux Mint, and others based on Ubuntu or Debian:

sudo apt-get install mtr

Red Hat, CentOS, and Fedora:

sudo yum install mtr

Arch Linux, Manjaro Linux, and other Arch-based:

pacman -Sy pacman -S mtr

  1. Third, use the basic MTR command or combine it with some of the options that you have for it. See the complete list of options below. 

Basic MTR command: 

mtr domain.com 

*Change the domain name with the one you want. 

Suggested article: What is Traceroute command?

Linux commands – (Cheat Sheet)

You can do a lot using just commands on Linux. Through the Terminal, you can type the command that you want and perfume many actions and diagnostics. Depending on the distro you are using, you will have a different shell pre-installed (bash, dash, etc.). They can have small differences, but for the majority of command, they will work the same.
You can also change the shell if you like. Here you can see a Linux commands cheat sheet with the main commands and what they do. 

Why should we use Linux? (6 reasons)

The presence of Linux has expanded a lot. From servers up to desktops. Linux has gotten a bigger user market that includes not just web developers or programmers but also regular users. Maybe you wonder the reasons.

Well, if you are looking for an operating system or just don’t know yet so much about it, here you have 6 reasons to choose Linux. 

Linux is free

Linux is really accessible to everybody. It’s not needed to pay for it and its updates. From the basic software for regular users to the advanced one for business, the policy is the same, free!

Linux VS Unix (Differences)

Linux vs Unix is not the same thing. Linux is a kernel, a core of an operating system that needs a package to be complete. There are plenty of Linux distros that, together with additional elements, make Linux an entire OS. On the other hand, you have Unix, an older and complete OS that has changed significantly over time. Now there are billions of devices with a version of Linux (computers, Android smartphones, embedded devices, etc.) and billions of gadgets with Unix (Mac computers, iPads, servers and more).